Book

Lillard, A. S. (2005). Montessori: The science behind the genius. New York: Oxford University Press.
Find it on Amazon.com

Media Mentions

  • "This Is When Racial Bias Begins To Impact A Child's Empathy For Pain, Study Suggests" Huffington Post , March 4, 2014
  • "If you are reading this article, your kid probably doesn't need preschool." Slate, January 16, 2013.
  • "Pretend play may not drive child development as much as once thought." APA Monitor, December 2012.
  • "School choice, testing, and Montessori." Letter to the Editor, The New York Times, 10 May 2010.
  • "Montessori." Albemarle Family Magazine, January, 2007. Reprinted January 2008.
  • "Balancing work and family". Occasional Paper Series, University of Virginia Teaching Resource Center. (2006). Cited as one of two useful resources on topic in William T. Grant Foundation publication, "Pay It Forward: Guidance for Mentoring Junior Scholars."
  • "Must educators make fools of themselves?" Letter to the Editor, The Wall Street Journal, 7/2/04.
  • "Testing mania", in Parenting for a New World, 13(1). Reprinted in First Capitol News, St. Charles, MO. Summer, 2004.
  • 2002-2004 Monthly articles on education-relevant psychology research for the Montessori Community School newsletter.
  • Journal Articles

    In Press

    • Lillard, A. S., Dore, R. A., Hopkins, E. J., & Smith, E. D. (in press). Challenges to research on play: Mending the methodological mistakes. In J. J. Johnson, & S. G. Eberle (Eds.), Handbook of the Study of Play. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Link to PDF

    Published

      2016
    • Hopkins, E.J., Smith, E.D., Weisberg, D.S. & Lillard, A.S. (2016). The development of substitute object pretense: The differential importance of form and function. Journal of Cognition and Development. Link to PDF
    • 2015
    • Dore, R. A., Jaswal, V. K., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Real or not? Informativeness influences children's reality status judgments cognitive development. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R. A., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Theory of mind and children's engagement in fantasy worlds. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. Link to PDF
    • Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Do children learn from pretense? Journal of Experimental Psychology Link to PDF
    • Lerner, M. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). From false belief to friendship: Commentary on Fink, Begeer, Peterson, Slaughter, & de Rosnay. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Li, H., Boguszewski, K., & Lillard, A.S. (2015). Can that really happen? Children's knowledge about the reality status of fantastical events on television. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A.S. (2015). The development of play. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Drell, M., Richey, E., Bogusweski, K., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact of cartoons on childrens executive function. Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Dore, R. A., Hopkins, E. J., & Smith, E. D. (2015). Challenges in the study of pretend play: What can we know, and how can we know it? Handbook of the Study of Play. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Li, H., & Boguszewski, K. (2015). Television and children's executive function. In J. B. Benson (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Woolley, J. D. (2015). Grounded in reality: how children make sense of the unreal. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Van Reet, J., Pinkham, A. M., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). The effect of realistic contexts on ontological judgments of novel entities. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Woolley, J. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2015). Cognizing the unreal. Cognitive Development. Link to PDF
    • Dore. R.A. & Lillard, A.S. (2014). Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions? Journal of Genetic Psychology. Link to PDF
    • 2014
    • Dore, R. A., Hoffman, K., Lillard, A. S., & Trawalter, S. (2014). Childrens racial bias in perceptions of others pain. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • Dore, R. A., Lillard, A. S., & Jaswal, V. K. (2014). Anthropologists in the crib [Review of the book Trusting What You're Told: How Children Learn from Others, by P.L. Harris]. Journal of Cognition and Development. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Kavanaugh, R. D. (2014). The contribution of symbolic skills to the development of an explicit theory of mind: Scale models, language, and pretend play. Child Development. Link to PDF
    • Oishi, S., Jaswal, V. K., Lillard, A. S., Mizokawa, A., Hitokoto, H., & Tsutsui, Y. (2014). Cultural variations in global versus local processing: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology. Link to PDF
    • 2013
    • Hirsh-Pasek, K., Russ, S., & Lillard, A. S. (2013). Probing play: What does the research show. American Journal of Play, 6(1), xi-xiii. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S. (2013). Playful learning and Montessori education. American Journal of Play, 5(2), 157-186. Reprinted in The NAMTA Journal, 38(2), 137-174.Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., Lerner, M. D., Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., Smith, E. D., & Palmquist, C. M. (2013). The impact of pretend play on children's development: The state of the evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 1-34.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Hopkins, E. J., Dore, R. A., Palmquist, C. M., Lerner, M. D., & Smith, E. S. (2013). Concepts and theories, methods and reasons: Why do the children (pretend) play? Reply to to Weisberg, Hirsh-Pasek, and Golinkoff (2012); Bergen (2012); and Walker and Gopnik (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 49-52.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Russ, S., Golinkoff, R., & Hirsch-Pasek, K. (2013). Probing play: The research we need. American Journal of Play, 6(1), 161-165. Link to PDF
    • Lillard, A. S., & Smith, E. D. (2013). Entwining teaching and research: Creating a collaborative review paper from a seminar. The APS Observer, 26(8), 31-32.
    • Ma, L., & Lillard, A. S. (2013). What makes an act a pretense one? Young children's pretend-real judgments and explanations. Child Development Research, 2013, 9 pages.Link to pdf
    • Smith, E. D., Englander, Z. A., Lillard, A. S., & Morris, J. P. (2013). Cortical mechanisms of pretense observation. Social Neuroscience, 8(4), 356-368. Link to PDF
    • 2012
    • Lillard, A. S. (2012). Preschool children's development in classic Montessori, supplemented Montessori, and conventional programs. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 379-401.Link to pdf
    • Smith, E. D., & Lillard, A. S. (2012). Play on: Retrospective reports of the persistence of pretend play into middle childhood. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13(4), 524-549.Link to pdf
    • 2011
    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Materials: What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Results from a Survey of AMI and AMS Teacher Trainers. Montessori Life, Fall, 18-32.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Mindfulness Practices in Education: Montessori's Approach. Mindfulness, 2(2), 78-85. doi: 10.1007/s12671-011-0045-6.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Erisir, A. (2011). Old dogs learning new tricks: Neuroplasticity beyond the juvenile period. Developmental Review, 31, 207-239.Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The Immediate Impact of Different Types of Television on Young Children's Executive Function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644-649. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1919Link to pdf
    • 2008
    • Lillard, A. S. (2008) How important are the Montessori materials? Feature article in Montessori Life, 4, 20-25.Link to pdf
    • Van Reet, J., Pinkham, A. S., and Lillard, A. S. (2008). The development of the counterfactual imagination; Commentary on Byrne. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 30, 468-9. Link to pdf
    • 2007
    • Lillard, A. S., & Else-Quest, N. (2007). Response to "Studying Students in Montessori Schools" by P. Lindenfors. Science, 315, 596-597. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., Nishida, T., Massaro, D., Vaish, A., Ma, L., & McRoberts, G. (2007). Signs of pretense across age and scenario. Infancy, 11(1), 1-30.Link to pdf
    • Nishida, T., & Lillard, A. S. (2007). The informative value of emotional expressions: Social referencing behavior in mother-infant pretense. Developmental Science, 10(2), 205-212. Link to pdf
    • 2006
    • Lillard, A. S (2006). Dissociations, developmental psychology, and pedagogical design. Child Development, 77(6), 1563-1567. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. & Else-Quest, N. (2006). Evaluating Montessori education. Science, 313, 1893-1894. Link to pdf
    • Ma, L., & Lillard, A. (2006). Where is the real cheese: Young children's understanding of pretense. Child Development, 77(6), 1762-1777. Link to pdf
    • 2005
    • Callaghan, T., Rochat, P., Lillard, A. S., Claux, M. L., Odden, H., Itakura, S., Tapanya, S., & Singh, S. (2005). Synchrony in the onset of mental state reasoning: Evidence From 5 cultures. Psychological Science, 16(5), 378-384. Link to pdf
    • 2004
    • Ganea, P. A., Lillard, A. S., & Turkheimer, E. (2004). Preschooler's understanding of the role of mental states and action in pretense. Cognition & Development, 5(2), 213-238. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Montessori: The Science. Proceedings of the Association Montessori Internationale.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Discriminating pretense and real snacks: A fundamental problem in early social cognition. British Developmental Psychology Forum, 62, 9-17.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Witherington, D. S. (2004). Mothers' behavior modifications during pretense snacks and their possible signal value for toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 40, 95-113. Link to pdf
    • Richert, R., & Lillard, A. S. (2004) Observers' proficiency at identifying pretend acts based on different behavioral cues. Cognitive Development, 19, 223-240. Link to pdf
    • 2002
    • Richert, R., & Lillard, A. S. (2002). Children's understanding of the knowledge prerequisites of drawing and pretending. Developmental Psychology, 38, 1004- 1015. Link to pdf
    • Sobel, D., & Lillard, A. S. (2002). Children's understanding of the mind's involvement in pretense: do words bend the truth? Developmental Science, 5, 87-97. Link to pdf
    • 2001
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Pretend play as Twin Earth: A social-cognitive analysis. Developmental Review, 21, 495-531. Link to pdf
    • Sobel, D. M., & Lillard, A. S. (2001). The impact of fantasy and action on young children's understanding of pretence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 85-98. Link to pdf
    • 2000
    • Lillard, A. S., Zeljo, A., Curenton, S., & Kaugers, A. (2000). Children's understanding of the animacy constraint on pretense. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 21-44. Link to pdf
    • 1999
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). Developing a cultural theory of mind: The CIAO approach. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 57-61. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). Siegal on Piaget's legacy: Gricean child meets blundering experimenter. Developmental Science, 2, 18-21.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1999). A cultural feast. Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin, March, 22-26.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Curenton, S. (1999). Do young children understand what others feel, want, and know? Young Children, 54, 52-57. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S., & Sobel, D. M. (1999). Lion Kings vs. puppies: the influence of fantasy on children's understanding of pretense. Developmental Science, 2, 75-80. Link to pdf
    • 1998
    • Lillard A. S. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: Reply to Wellman & Gauvain. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 43-46. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Casting the theory net wide. Review of Gopnik & Meltzoff (1997). Contemporary Psychology, 43, 663-665.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). The source of universal conceptions: A look from folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 580.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Theories behind theories of mind. Human Development, 41, 40-44.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Wanting to be it: Children's understanding of intentions underlying pretense. Child Development, 61, 981-993. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: Cultural variations in theory of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 3-30. Link to pdf
    • 1997
    • Lillard, A. S. (1997). Other folks' theories of mind and behavior. Psychological Science, 8, 268-274. Link to pdf
    • 1996
    • Lillard, A. S. (1996). Body or mind: Children's categorizating of pretense. Child Development, 67, 1717-1734. Link to pdf
    • 1993
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Moving forward on cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 528-529.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Pretend play skills and the child's theory of mind. Child Development, 64, 348-371. Link to pdf
    • Lillard, A. S. (1993). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386. Link to pdf
    • 1992
    • Lillard, A. S., & Flavell, J. H. (1992). Young children's understanding of different mental states. Developmental Psychology, 28, 626-634. Link to pdf
    • 1990
    • Lillard, A. S., & Flavell, J. H. (1990). Young children's preference for mental state versus behavioral descriptions of human action. Child Development, 61, 731- 741 Link to pdf

    Book Chapters

    • Lillard, A. S. (2011). Mother-Child Fantasy Play. In A. Peligrini (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play (pp. 284-295). New York: Oxford.
    • Lillard, A. S., Pinkham, A. S., & Smith, E. D. (2010). Pretend play and cognitive nd development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive development (2 pp). London: Blackwell.
    • Pinkham, A. S., Van Reet, J., and Lillard, A. S. (2009). Concepts: Children's reasoning about the psychological world. In R. A. Shweder, T. R. Bidell, A. C. Dailey, S. D. Dixon, P. J. Miller, and J. Modell (Eds.), The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion (pp. 197-199). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2007). Pretend play in toddlers. In C. Brownell & C. Kopp (Eds.), Early Socioemotional Development, New York: Guilford.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2007). Mothers' structuring and others' interpreting of pretend play. In A. Goncu & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and Development: Evolutionary, Sociocultural and Functional Perspectives (pp. 131-153). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2006). Inside/outside: Where children from different cultural contexts focus their explanations for behavior. In A. Antonietti, O. Liverta-Sempio, & A. Marchetti (Eds.), Theory of mind and language in developmental contexts (pp. 65-76). New York: Springer.
    • Lillard, A.S. (2005). The Montessori Method. In N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2004). Pretend play and cognitive development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive development (1st ed., pp. 188-205). London: Blackwell.
    • Lillard, A. S., & Skibbe, L. E. (2004). Theory of Mind: Conscious attribution and spontaneous trait inference. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, & J. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp.277-308). NY: Oxford. (2nd Ed.)
    • Lillard, A. S. (2002). Just through the looking glass: Children's understanding of pretense. In R. Mitchell (Ed.), Pretending and imagination in animals and children (pp. 102-114). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Explaining the connection: Pretend play and theory of mind. In S. Reifel (Ed.), Theory in context and out. Vol. 3, Play and culture studies (pp. 173-178). Westport, CT: Ablex.
    • Lillard, A. S. (2001). Pretending, understanding pretense, and understanding minds. In S. Reifel (Ed.), Theory in context and out. Vol. 3, Play and culture studies (pp. 233-254). Westport, CT: Ablex.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1998). Playing with a theory of mind. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education (pp. 11-33). Series Editor: M. Jensen. New York: SUNY Press.
    • Lillard, A. S. (1994). Making sense of pretence. In C. Lewis and P. Mitchell (Eds.), Children's early understanding of mind: Origins and development (pp. 211-234). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Harris, P. L., Lillard, A. S., & Perner, J. (1994). Commentary: Triangulating pretence and belief. In C. Lewis & P. Mitchell (Eds.), Children's early understanding of mind: Origins and development (pp. 287-293). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.