In the molecular-level images (left frame) molecules are shown by dots that are smaller than their actual size so that the largest voids (or regions of reduced density) could be identified while looking through the 40 nm deep computational cell. In the right frame voids are represented by spheres of the same volume as the actual voids. Horizontal dashed lines show the current location of the surface.
A detailed discussion of this and other simulations of laser spallation of molecular and metal targets is given in
L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: Connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11892-11906, 2009.
Full Text: PDF (4.4 MB)
E. Leveugle, D. S. Ivanov, and L. V. Zhigilei, Photomechanical spallation of molecular and metal targets: molecular dynamics study, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1643-1655, 2004.
Full Text: PDF (1.2 MB)
L. V. Zhigilei, D. S. Ivanov, E. Leveugle, B. Sadigh, and E. M. Bringa, Computer modeling of laser melting and spallation of metal targets, High-Power Laser Ablation V, Proc. SPIE 5448, 505-519, 2004.
Full Text: PDF (656 kB)
E. Leveugle and L. V. Zhigilei, Microscopic mechanisms of short pulse laser spallation of molecular solids, Appl. Phys. A 79, 753-756, 2004.
Full Text: PDF (320 kB)
D. S. Ivanov and L. V. Zhigilei, Combined atomistic-continuum modeling of short pulse laser melting and disintegration of metal films, Phys. Rev. B 68, 064114, 2003.
Full Text: PDF (4.8 MB)
A. G. Zhidkov, L. V. Zhigilei, A. Sasaki, and T. Tajima, Short-laser-pulse Driven Emission of Energetic Ions into a Solid Target from a Surface Layer Spalled by a Laser Prepulse, Appl. Phys. A 73, 741-747, 2001.
Full Text: PDF (794 kB)
L. V. Zhigilei and B. J. Garrison, Microscopic Mechanisms of Laser Ablation of Organic Solids in the Thermal and Stress Confinement Irradiation Regimes, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1281-1298, 2000.
Full Text: PDF (800 kB)
L. V. Zhigilei and B. J. Garrison, Mechanisms of Laser Ablation from Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Dependence on the Initial Temperature and Pulse Duration, Appl. Phys. A 69, S75-S80, 1999.
Full Text: PDF (453 kB)