Identify/Generate the principle
Time: 20 minutes
Hand out the "article" below. Give students five minutes
to read it and underline the claim. Ask students whether the author
has convinced them that the claim is true. (We hope they say it
hasn't). Then, ask why not.
Students usually report that there's something wrong with the evidence:
there isn't enough of it, it isn't believable, etc. Have students
read out any lines that seem less than believable. Tell students
that they have three minutes to make up any evidence that they
want to convince readers of the truth of the claim. Go around the
room and read out the new evidence, and ask how many people would
be convinced by that evidence.
Finally, explain that the problem really isn't evidence, it's warrants.
In order to believe in the claim/evidence, what do we have to believe?
(Martians exist; Martians want to overthrow democracies; vegetarians
want to overthrow democracies.) No amount of evidence is going
to make us believe that.
this argument and underline the claim.
The taste and smell of vegetables are capable of destroying the
emotions or at least inflaming the political passions that are
so easily ignited in young people. At a time when young people
need to be nurtured in the ways of good government, Martians want
to captivate them with their plan for world overthrow. Among humans,
there are probably no better emissaries of the Martians than the
leaders of the vegetarian movement. Anti-Martian expert PeterSainsbury
verifies that many vegetarian leaders are not only involved with
Martians, but also with government overthrow, immortality and perversion.
His book, Fear Falafel! includes numerous documents implicating
One of the most incredible stories I have ever heard about vegetables
was brought to my attention by Walter Jones, the manager of our
local high school cafeteria. Being a former vegetarian himself,
he is well-acquainted with the subject. He indicated that a well-known
vegetarian cookbook contained a message to the Martians. When read
normally, the recipes were harmless; by leaving out every other
line, however, the secret message became clear: the Martians were
alerted to holes in our national security. As incredible as it
sounds, I have read it. Our democracy is in danger.